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Animals | Lesson 6 - Other Examples of Digestion, Biosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration

Lesson 6: Explaining Other Examples of Animals Growing, Moving, and Functioning

Students practice explaining digestion, biosynthesis, and cellular respiration in other animals and then take the unit posttest.

Guiding Question

How do other animals grow, move, and function?

Activities in this Lesson

  • Activity 6.1: Explaining Other Examples of Animals Growing, Moving, and Functioning (60 min)
  • (Optional) Activity 6.2: Explaining How All Animals Grow, Move, and Function (60 min)
  • Activity 6.2: Animals Unit Posttest (20 min)

Objectives

  1. Describe systems and processes in a hierarchy of scales, including atomic-molecular, macroscopic, and large scale (connecting atomic molecular and macroscopic scales)
  2. Draw and explain movements of materials during 1) growth of an animal and 2) function/movement of an organism, including air and food entering the animal, and waste, air enriched in carbon dioxide and water vapor leaving the animal (focus on growth)
  3. Identify the most abundant organic materials in foods—fats, proteins, and carbohydrates—and use food labels to find out how concentrated they are in different foods and animal tissues.
  4. Explain the chemical changes that occur when an animal digests food and creates new biomass.
  5. Explain energy transformations during 1) growth: chemical energy stored in food is preserved as polymers are broken down to monomers then reassembled as animal biomass and 2) function/movement of an organism: Chemical energy stored in organic molecules is transformed into motion and heat (focus on growth)
  6. Draw and explain movements of materials during movement of an organism (mealworms, people, birds, and fish), including air and food entering the animal, and waste, air enriched in carbon dioxide and water vapor leaving the animal.
  7. Identify forms of energy involved in growth and movement of animals (mealworms, people, birds, and fish): chemical energy, movement, and heat energy.
  8. Explain energy transformations during the movement of an organism (mealworms, people, birds, and fish): chemical energy stored in organic molecules is transformed into motion and heat.
  9. Explain the chemical changes that occur during cellular respiration, representing the changes with molecular models and chemical equations.

NGSS Performance Expectations

Middle School

  • MS. Matter and its Interactions. MS-PS1-1. Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.

High School

  • HS. From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes. HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
  • HS. From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes. HS-LS1-6. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules.
  • HS. From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes. HS-LS1-7. Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.

Background Information

In this final lesson of the unit, students have completed the inquiry and application sequences for animal growth and movement. The activities in the previous lessons were designed to walk students through a cognitive apprenticeship model of Establishing the Problem, Modeling, Coaching, and Fading. The results of the unit posttest will help you determine if your students are ready to move on to the final stage: Fading. After the Fading stage, students will be expected to carry forward concepts from this unit into future units. If the results from your posttest imply that a majority of your students are still struggling with certain concepts, it might be valuable to return to some of the main concepts they are struggling with before moving on to the next Carbon TIME unit.

Activity 6.1 is the first part of the Fading phase of the Application Activity Sequence, which provides students with important less-scaffolded practice with digestion, biosynthesis, and cellular respiration. Students should take more responsibility for their work than in lessons 4 and 5, which included the Modeling and Coaching phases. Students answer the Three Questions for different animals growing and moving using the Explanations Tools, coordinating accounts at the macroscopic and atomic-molecular scales. Macroscopic scale accounts include these components:

  • the structure of the system (the animal in this case) and the movement of materials through the system;
  • the location where chemical change takes place;
  • the materials involved in the chemical change: the reactants going in and the products coming out.

Activity 6.2 is the second part of the Fading phase of the Application Activity Sequence. In this activity, students write generalized explanations, which focus on the cellular scale, of how all animals grow, move, and function.

Activity 6.3 includes summative assessment for the unit. You can track students’ progress by having them take the unit posttest (identical to the unit pretest) and comparing the results of the two assessments.

Key carbon-transforming processes: Digestion, Biosynthesis, and Cellular Respiration

Unit Map

Unit Map Lesson 6

Talk and Writing

This lesson of the unit represents the fading portion of the Explanations Phase. This means that students are expected to develop explanations for carbon-transforming processes they studied in this unit in new and novel contexts. The table below shows specific talk and writing goals for the Explanations phase of the unit.

Talk and Writing Goals for the Explanations Phase

Teacher Talk Strategies That Support This Goal

Curriculum Components That Support This Goal

Examine student ideas and correct them when there are problems. It’s ok to give the answers away during this phase! Help students practice using precise language to describe matter and energy.

Let’s think about what you just said: air molecules. What are air molecules?

Are you talking about matter or energy?

Remember: atoms can’t be created. So that matter must have come from somewhere. Where did it come from?

Let’s look at the molecule poster again… is carbon an atom or a molecule?

Molecule Poster

Three Questions Poster

 

Focus on making sure that explanations include multiple scales.

The investigation gave us evidence for what was happening to matter and energy at a macroscopic sale. But what is happening at an atomic-molecular scale?

What is happening to molecules and atoms?

How does energy interact with atoms and molecules during chemical change?

Why doesn’t the macroscopic investigation tell us the whole story?

Let’s revisit our scale poster… what is happening to matter at the molecular scale?

Molecular Models

Molecular Modeling Worksheets

Explanations Tool

PPT Animation of chemical change

Powers of Ten Poster

Encourage students to recall the investigation.

When did this chemical change happen during our investigation?

How do we know that? What is our evidence?

What were the macroscopic indicators that this chemical change took place?

Evidence-Based Arguments Tool

Investigation Video

Elicit a range of student explanations. Press for details. Encourage students to examine, compare, and contrast their explanations with others’.

Who can add to that explanation?

What do you mean by _____? Say more.

So I think you said _____. Is that right?

Who has a different explanation?

How are those explanations similar/different?

Who can rephrase ________’s explanation?

Explanations Tool